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Random thoughts on Android Jellybean and Google Nexus 7 Accessibility

August 2, 2012

If you follow developments in mobile technology, you may already know that a new version of the Android operating system called “JellyBean” has been launched last month along with a new 7 inch tablet device called the Google Nexus 7. It was also announced that JellyBean came with a number of accessibility improvements. To know more about these improvements, either watch this hour long or the announcement on the Eyes-Free Android blog.

I needed to test the new accessibility improvements in JellyBean and so I ordered a Google Nexus7. I was happy to note that the help documentation for Google Nexus 7 has a section dedicated for accessibility features. Anyone considering a purchase of an Android JellyBean device should read through this information.

In spite of reading through this section and doing a bit of research in advance, I ran into a couple of problems while setting up the new Google Nexus 7. I thought I will document them here with possible workarounds that I found.

Turning the device on for the first time

If you are blind and do not have sighted assistance, don’t be in a hurry to unbox your Nexus 7 and turn it on. It would help to prepare a bit.

Firstly, you will need to have a pair of headphones ready. You don’t have to use them right from the start: Nexus 7 does have an external speaker but it would be very hard to complete the setup without them as you will see shortly. Secondly, it would help to have a flat surface like a desk. There is a gesture to turn on Accessibility mode which fires up Talkback with Explore by Touch mode active. This gesture is rather unreliable and seems to work best when the device is placed flat on a desk.

If you are holding Nexus 7 in the portrait mode, the power button and the volume rocker should be along the right edge of the device towards the top. The 3.5mm headphone socket is along the bottom edge towards the right. Don’t forget to connect the device to a power source before you start. The mini USB port is along the bottom edge towards the middle. It seems to ship with an almost empty battery.

When you turn on the device by pressing the power button, you will be placed on a welcome screen. You can turn on the Accessibility mode right here. You need to touch the screen with two fingers placed slightly apart and hold for 4seconds. When you place 2 fingers, in the first second or so, the device should recognise the gesture and will ask you to continue holding for a few more seconds to turn on Accessibility Mode. Don’t remove your fingers from the screen and no matter what you do, don’t let a third finger touch the screen in these few seconds. I did this exact thing by mistake and the device said “cancelling accessibility mode” and wouldn’t talk to me at all for the next 3 hours no matter what I tried.

It appears as if the gesture works better when you use both hands with one finger touching towards the top half of the screen while the other touches towards the bottom half. If for some unfortunate reason, you end up in a situation where the device says “cancelling accessibility mode”, you can try the same two finger gesture again. Even though the device may not speak, you may hear a click sound after 4 seconds or so. At this point the Accessibility mode may come up on its own. If not, try drawing a rectangle on the screen in the clockwise direction. This gesture is supposed to enable Talkback and explore by touch although it didn’t work in my case. As a last resort, you may try the two finger gesture again a few times. You might just be lucky!

Of course, if you have the chance, you can also setup the device with sighted help and then turn on Talkback from Apps > Settings > Accessibility > Talkback. A number of users on Twitter and on the Eyes-free mailing list seem to be having issues with the gesture to turn on Accessibility mode. I tried the two finger gesture and the rectangle gesture countless number of times and spent close to three hours on it before it somehow worked. I hope that this issue will be addressed at some point in the near future. Turning on Accessibility mode with hardware keys might be a better way for most users. A large majority of Android devices will have at least a power button and volume control keys.

Assuming that you got the two finger gesture to work and you have the Accessibility mode turned on, you will be placed in the explore by touch tutorial. It only has three steps but I found it to be very useful. It covers the important gestures that you will need to learn to use Talkback with explore by touch mode enabled. Once the tutorial is finished, you will return to the welcome screen where you need to pick a language and activate the “Start” button to start setting up the device.

When you get to the screen to enter the password for the Wi-Fi network, look for the checkbox which says “show password” or “display password” and check it. If you don’t do this, all characters on the virtual keyboard are read as “dot” by Talkback. Unfortunately, when entering your Google account details, the “show password” option isn’t available (for obvious reasons). This is where the headphones come in handy. In order to enter the password with the virtual keyboard, you need to connect the headphones. Once headphones are connected, the characters on the virtual keyboard are announced correctly. Otherwise, you will just hear “dot” no matter which character you touch.

This is a great idea for security reasons but I don’t think it is smart to enable this by default. What if I don’t have a pair of headphones handy when I am setting up the device? This feature can be turned off by selecting “speak passwords” checkbox in apps > settings > Accessibility but it isn’t possible to get to settings from the initial setup screen. I just don’t think this is a smart usability decision.

Accessibility mode gesture isn’t available on all devices

It is important to remember that the 2 finger tap and hold gesture to turn on Accessibility mode may not be available on most devices. Both the current Google devices, Nexus 7 tablet and Galaxy Nexus smartphone support this. on other Android devices from manufacturers like HTC, Samsung, Motorola and so on, the components required for accessibility support will have to be either downloaded from the Google Play app store or enabled in Apps > Settings > Accessibility. In addition, these manufacturers may also customise the user interface of Android with skins. These skins may or may not work with Talkback and other accessibility features. For now, it is best to stick to Google devices which run stock Android (with no customisation) if you need to use a screen reader. There are ways to install stock Android builds on non-Google devices but this is not easily accomplished.

New gestures

Explore by touch mode was introduced in Ice cream Sandwich (Android 4.0) and this is improved in JellyBean. In addition to touch exploration where you would move your finger along the screen for Talkback to announce the items you have touched, you can also use gestures to navigate through these items. For example, swipe right and swipe left moves focus to the next and previous item on the screen respectively. Double tap anywhere on the screen to activate the last focussed item.

While you can get to any item on the screen by touching it if you remember the exact position, a combination of touch exploration and swipe gestures is the most efficient way to navigate a touch screen in my opinion. Introduction of swipe gestures is an excellent addition to Android Accessibility.

A list of all Accessibility gestures in Android 4.1 (JellyBean) are available under the accessibility section in Nexus 7 help documentation. By default, the left and right swipe gestures move focus by item. But you can change this to move by character, word or paragraph. Swipe down with one finger and in the same gesture swipe up. Talkback will say “read by character”. You can now use the left and/or right swipe gestures to read the current item character by character. To return to the default navigation mode (moving by item), keep using the swipe down and up gesture until Talkback says “default reading level”. Swipe up and down toggles backwards among the available navigation modes.

There are a couple of very important gestures missing and I haven’t found an alternative way to perform these actions:

· A gesture to pause or stop speech. This doesn’t seem to be possible on the Nexus 7 tablet but Marco Zehe has noticed that tapping his Galaxy Nexus on the top edge usually silences speech. I suspect this is because of the proximity sensor on the phone. But really, a screen reader should have a pause speech command/gesture.

· A gesture to read from the current item to the end. I thought this is a basic requirement for a screen reader. But there doesn’t seem to be a way to do this. For example, if I am reading a long email thread in the Gmail app, I have to read the entire body of the message at one go or read by character/word/paragraph. Further, reading anything remotely lengthy in a web browser is extremely painful without this command.

A word about navigating lists

It is best to illustrate my point with an example. When you open the Apps > Settings screen, Talkback will inform you that you are on a list showing 18 items. There are actually 24 items in the Settings screen on my Nexus 7 but only 18 items are visible on the screen. In order to get to the other 6 items, you will have to manually scroll with scrolling gestures. If you do not do this and continue navigating with left/right swipe gestures, you will only keep moving through these 18 items in the list and other items on the screen. In order to scroll down to the other 6 items, place two fingers on the screen and move up. You can also swipe right and swipe left in the same gesture to go to the next page in a list.

I wanted to point this out because this behaviour is contrary to how most other user interfaces work especially for screen reader users. When navigation commands are used, list controls tend to automatically scroll to display hidden items.

Talkback behaviour is particularly confusing because when you move focus to a list control, it only informs the number of items that are being displayed but fails to mention how many items there are in the list. In the Settings example for instance, instead of just saying “list showing 18 items”, it would be useful for Talkback to say “list showing 18 of 24 items”. Without this information, users will always have to attempt manually scrolling the list just to make sure they are not missing any items.

Virtual Keyboard

Using the default Android keyboard in JellyBean is straightforward. When you encounter an input field, just double tap on the input field to bring up the keyboard. Move your finger along the keys and when you have found the character you would like to insert, just lift your finger. Talkback will read out the inserted character at a lower pitch. On the Nexus 7, I am noticing that I have to be precise with my finger placement on the characters for them to be inserted. If I don’t lift my finger in the exact centre of the character, it doesn’t insert it. to insert numbers, switch to the “Symbols” keyboard by tapping the “symbols” toggle on the bottom left of the keyboard

Do remember that you will need headphones to enter passwords if you haven’t turned on “speak passwords” in Apps > Settings > Accessibility.

Entering a Pin on the lock screen

If the Nexus 7 needs a pin to unlock, the way to enter it is slightly different to the usual way you enter text. On the lock screen, there is an input field without a label and immediately to the right is a button without a label as well. This unlabelled button needs to be activated by double tapping before entering the pin. To insert digits of the pin, just tap the digits on the telephone keypad style virtual keypad. Don’t double tap them. Just tap the digits and lift the finger. Even though there is no feedback, the digits are entered. When you are done entering all digits of the pin, tap the enter key to the right of the digit 0 on the virtual keypad. On the other hand, if the device is locked with a password, you would double tap the unlabelled input field which brings up a standard virtual keyboard.

Voice recognition

Voice recognition is one reason why I keep trying to switch to Android. It does an excellent job recognising my accent. It is much more accurate than Siri on iPhone. Voice Recognition is available throughout Android. Basically, you are able to speak into almost all input fields in Android.

Before you start using voice recognition though, make sure you connect a pair of headphones. Trying to use voice recognition when Talkback is running and speaking out of the built-in speaker is a recipe for disaster!

When you are composing a text message or an email, look for the “voice input” button on the keyboard. This is between the “Symbols” toggle and the spacebar on the bottom left corner of the device. Tap this and lift your finger and you will hear an earcon notifying you that the device is ready for you to speak. Just speak normally and when you are done, wait for a few seconds. The device will play another earcon to indicate that it has paused recognition. You will also notice that the keyboard now only has one item which says “tap to speak”. Double tap this button to start recognition again. In order to get the normal keyboard back, you need to activate the Back button on the bottom left of the device and then double tap the input field again. This process is a bit clumsy but I haven’t found an alternative.

When you are speaking, Talkback will start reading out words as they are recognised by the device and entered in the input field. This can be a bit distracting. And by now you can guess why I suggest using headphones. When the device is in voice input mode, Talkback will read the text inserted by the voice recognition feature. However, the voice recognition features starts to recognise Talkback’s speech output and inserts the same words again in the input field. This results in an infinite loop with Talkback reading out the same words and the voice recognition feature inserting the same words over and over again. This is rather funny to watch but makes for a horrid user experience.

In spite of this, I still say that Android’s voice recognition feature is fantastic. I can probably put up with having to use headphones for the recognition accuracy it gives me especially with my Indian accent.

Further, you can also use Google Voice Search for some simple requests such as asking for local weather information and so on. If Google Voice Search finds a simple answer, it will speak out the answer. If it can’t find an answer to your question, it just displays Google search results. Google Voice Search is located on the home screen’s dock. Surprisingly, Talkback doesn’t interfere with voice recognition when using Voice Search. So this can be used even without headphones.

Google Chrome

Talkback now works with Google Chrome which is the default browser on Android. It does recognise various HTML elements such as lists, headings, landmarks and so on but there is no way to navigate/jump among these. The available reading levels are still character, word and paragraph.

Further, the explore by touch feature doesn’t seem to work reliably on a web page. Although navigating by left and swipe gestures works fine, exploring a web page by moving a finger along the screen doesn’t seem to reliably work on all web pages.

There is an option to “enhance web accessibility” in Apps > Settings > Accessibility which needs to be turned on for Google to insert certain scripts which are supposed to improve accessibility on web pages. If you are having problems on the web, it might be worthwhile to check if this option is enabled.

Other nice features

App developers should always test their apps with Talkback. JellyBean makes this a little easier. There is an option to display speech output under Apps > Settings > Accessibility > Talkback > Settings > Developer Settings. Enable this option and there will be a bubble on the screen which displays what Talkback is speaking.

I was also happy to notice that the default email app on Android and the Gmail app have been made accessible. They now work with Talkback for most part except for minor annoyances. The read/unread status of an email message isn’t spoken by Talkback. Plus the body of an email is displayed in web view which means explore by touch doesn’t work correctly. One has to use the left/swipe right gestures to navigate and read the message. But I can read email messages from my work account as well as Gmail. There is also K9 email which is supposed to be an accessible email client but I haven’t used it in a while.

I was trying to find an accessible Twitter client for Android. UberSocial seems to be the answer but the app displays timelines in web view which makes it a bit difficult to use.

I am sure I missed a few great features but as the title of the article indicates, these are random thoughts and I am not trying to do a full review. Further, there are other accessibility features that I haven’t tried out. There is a large text feature in Accessibility options. I am not sure how this is supposed to work. And there are a number of third-party accessibility services which I may test when I have the time.

If you have any tips or tricks or recommendations on apps, please get in touch on Twitter @kirankaja12.

I expect more from Technology because of Jobs

October 6, 2011

Words are never enough to express
such a loss
and I have never been good at writing anyway. But I feel compelled
to say a few things about how Steve Jobs has profoundly altered my
expectations when it comes to technology especially as a blind person.


I started using a mobile phone in late 2000. It was a Nokia 3310. I was 19 at that time
and living in India. The phone was a gift from my uncle in Singapore. All I could
do with it is send and receive calls. I had to remember telephone numbers of
course because I couldn’t use the phone book. Text messages, reminders and
everything else was equally unusable. But surprisingly, I didn’t mind it in the
least. I had a device that I could use to contact friends and family any time and
any where I wanted. For a while, I felt like I had the greatest thing in the


In 2011 however, I at least own four different so called
smart phones and as a blind person, I can use most of their excellent features
and functionality. The real game changer for me is undoubtedly the iPhone with
its built-in accessibility features. In spite of all its limitations and Apple’s
walled garden approach, iPhone has drastically improved my access to
information and to that, I am eternally grateful to Steve Jobs.


I grew up in a south Indian city called Hyderabad which had no
real infrastructure to support persons with blindness or any other disabilities
for that matter. Access to information and books in alternative formats was
unheard of for most of my younger years. I read my first proper braille book
when I was sixteen thanks to RNIB’s National Library for the Blind in the UK. As
a result, I started devouring information when my parents bought me a computer,
a flatbed scanner and Kurzweil 1000
software. I believed for a long time that I couldn’t live without my computer
for any length of time. But the iPhone changed all this. I can do almost
everything on the iPhone now including listening to books. I am still catching
up on all the reading I missed when I was young. Survival would be tough
without the iPhone.


I don’t believe Apple’s motives behind including built-in
accessibility features in their products are entirely altruistic. I am sure
legal considerations were a significant factor in setting the accessibility initiative
at Apple in motion. Does anyone remember the VPAT for the 1st
generation iPhone? It implied that blind people could use the device with


But the reasons are immaterial. Once Apple decided to build
in accessibility, all of us benefited from Steve Jobs’ vision of doing things
right. I have no doubt that he was directly and/or indirectly responsible for
the high level of accessibility we see in iOS devices these days. It wouldn’t
have been possible without continued support from top management. Stevie
Wonder was entirely right to thank Jobs
for this.


Unfortunately, increased accessibility in iOS devices has greatly
raised my expectations. It is hard to digest the fact that other smartphone and
tablet devices and platforms offer very little by way of accessibility. If it
weren’t for the iPhone, I would have been happy to wait for a 3rd
party company to develop assistive technology software for one or two of these
devices. Instead, I now expect that other smartphones and tablets also provide
these accessibility features by default.


Although I am frequently disappointed by lack of such
features, I am thankful to Steve Jobs for opening my eyes (figuratively
speaking of course) to the fact that I can definitely expect more from
technology. Thank you Steve for treating persons with disabilities fairly. I sincerely
pray that Apple continues your legacy. Rest in peace.


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